Arthritis In The Knee: Symptoms And Treatment

Arthritis In The Knee: Symptoms And Treatment


The knee joint is susceptible to many forms of arthritis. These include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and post-traumatic arthritis. Osteoarthritis generally affects people in their old age. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect a person at any age. Post-traumatic arthritis may develop in case of an injury to the knee joint.

What are the symptoms of arthritis in the knee


The symptoms associated with knee arthritis are stiffness and inflammation of the knee. It becomes difficult to bend or straighten the knee and everyday activities such as walking become painful chores. The pain and swelling is usually worse in the morning or after a period of inactivity. Changes in the weather may also bring about an increase in these symptoms.

A knee joint affected by arthritis may be painful and inflamed. Generally, the pain develops gradually over time, although sudden onset is also possible. There are other symptoms, as well:

  • The joint may become stiff and swollen, making it difficult to bend and straighten the knee.
  • Pain and swelling may be worse in the morning, or after sitting or resting.
  • Vigorous activity may cause pain to flare up.
  • Loose fragments of cartilage and other tissue can interfere with the smooth motion of joints. The knee may "lock" or "stick" during movement. It may creak, click, snap or make a grinding noise (crepitus).
  • Pain may cause a feeling of weakness or buckling in the knee.
  • Many people with arthritis note increased joint pain with rainy weather.

If you suffer from any of these symptoms it is a good idea to consult your physician. He or she will perform a thorough physical examination of the affected part to determine the presence of arthritis.

He may also take x-rays of the affected part or carry out an MRI. Samples of blood or synovial fluid may also need to be taken, especially in case of rheumatoid arthritis.

Treatmrnt for Arthritis In The Knee


There is no cure for arthritis but there are a number of treatments that may help relieve the pain and disability it can cause.

Nonsurgical Treatment


As with other arthritic conditions, initial treatment of arthritis of the knee is nonsurgical. Your doctor may recommend a range of treatment options.

Lifestyle modifications

Some changes in your daily life can protect your knee joint and slow the progress of arthritis.

  • Minimize activities that aggravate the condition, such as climbing stairs.
  • Switching from high impact activities (like jogging or tennis) to lower impact activities (like swimming or cycling) will put less stress on your knee.
  • Losing weight can reduce stress on the knee joint, resulting in less pain and increased function.

Physical therapy

Specific exercises can help increase range of motion and flexibility, as well as help strengthen the muscles in your leg. Your doctor or a physical therapist can help develop an individualized exercise program that meets your needs and lifestyle.

Assistive devices

Using devices such as a cane, wearing shock-absorbing shoes or inserts, or wearing a brace or knee sleeve can be helpful. A brace assists with stability and function, and may be especially helpful if the arthritis is centered on one side of the knee. There are two types of braces that are often used for knee arthritis: An "unloader" brace shifts weight away from the affected portion of the knee, while a "support" brace helps support the entire knee load.

Other remedies for Arthritis In The Knee

Applying heat or ice, using pain-relieving ointments or creams, or wearing elastic bandages to provide support to the knee may provide some relief from pain.

Medications

Several types of drugs are useful in treating arthritis of the knee. Because people respond differently to medications, your doctor will work closely with you to determine the medications and dosages that are safe and effective for you.

  • Over-the-counter, non-narcotic pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medications are usually the first choice of therapy for arthritis of the knee. Acetaminophen is a simple, over-the-counter pain reliever that can be effective in reducing arthritis pain.
Like all medications, over-the-counter pain relievers can cause side effects and interact with other medications you are taking. Be sure to discuss potential side effects with your doctor.
  • Another type of pain reliever is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID (pronounced "en-said"). NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, are available both over-the-counter and by prescription.
  • A COX-2 inhibitor is a special type of NSAID that may cause fewer gastrointestinal side effects. Common brand names of COX-2 inhibitors include Celebrex (celecoxib) and Mobic (meloxicam, which is a partial COX-2 inhibitor). A COX-2 inhibitor reduces pain and inflammation so that you can function better. If you are taking a COX-2 inhibitor, you should not use a traditional NSAID (prescription or over-the-counter). Be sure to tell your doctor if you have had a heart attack, stroke, angina, blood clot, hypertension, or if you are sensitive to aspirin, sulfa drugs or other NSAIDs.
  • Corticosteroids (also known as cortisone) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that can be injected into the joint These injections provide pain relief and reduce inflammation; however, the effects do not last indefinitely. Your doctor may recommend limiting the number of injections to three or four per year, per joint, due to possible side effects.
In some cases, pain and swelling may "flare" immediately after the injection, and the potential exists for long-term joint damage or infection. With frequent repeated injections, or injections over an extended period of time, joint damage can actually increase rather than decrease.
  • Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are used to slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine are commonly prescribed.
In addition, biologic DMARDs like etanercept (Embril) and adalimumab (Humira) may reduce the body's overactive immune response. Because there are many different drugs today for rheumatoid arthritis, a rheumatology specialist is often required to effectively manage medications.
  • Viscosupplementation involves injecting substances into the joint to improve the quality of the joint fluid.
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, substances found naturally in joint cartilage, can be taken as dietary supplements. Although patient reports indicate that these supplements may relieve pain, there is no evidence to support the use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to decrease or reverse the progression of arthritis.
In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not test dietary supplements before they are sold to consumers. These compounds may cause side effects, as well as negative interactions with other medications. Always consult your doctor before taking dietary supplements.

Alternative therapies

Many alternative forms of therapy are unproven, but may be helpful to try, provided you find a qualified practitioner and keep your doctor informed of your decision. Alternative therapies to treat pain include the use of acupuncture and magnetic pulse therapy.

Acupuncture uses fine needles to stimulate specific body areas to relieve pain or temporarily numb an area. Although it is used in many parts of the world and evidence suggests that it can help ease the pain of arthritis, there are few scientific studies of its effectiveness. Be sure your acupuncturist is certified, and do not hesitate to ask about his or her sterilization practices.

Magnetic pulse therapy is painless and works by applying a pulsed signal to the knee, which is placed in an electromagnetic field. Like many alternative therapies, magnetic pulse therapy has yet to be proven.

Surgical Treatment for Arthritis In The Knee


Your doctor may recommend surgery if your pain from arthritis causes disability and is not relieved with nonsurgical treatment. As with all surgeries, there are some risks and possible complications with different knee procedures. Your doctor will discuss the possible complications with you before your operation.

Arthroscopy

During arthroscopy, doctors use small incisions and thin instruments to diagnose and treat joint problems.

Arthroscopic surgery is not often used to treat arthritis of the knee. In cases where osteoarthritis is accompanied by a degenerative meniscal tear, arthroscopic surgery may be recommended to treat the torn meniscus.

Cartilage grafting

Normal, healthy cartilage tissue may be taken from another part of the knee or from a tissue bank to fill a hole in the articular cartilage. This procedure is typically considered only for younger patients who have small areas of cartilage damage.

Synovectomy

The joint lining damaged by rheumatoid arthritis is removed to reduce pain and swelling.

Osteotomy

In a knee osteotomy, either the tibia (shinbone) or femur (thighbone) is cut and then reshaped to relieve pressure on the knee joint. Knee osteotomy is used when you have early-stage osteoarthritis that has damaged just one side of the knee joint. By shifting your weight off the damaged side of the joint, an osteotomy can relieve pain and significantly improve function in your arthritic knee.

Total or partial knee replacement (arthroplasty). Your doctor will remove the damaged cartilage and bone, and then position new metal or plastic joint surfaces to restore the function of your knee.