Understand basic pathology in simple words of Diabetes Mellitus, Ways to prevent diabetes

Understand basic pathology in simple words of Diabetes Mellitus, Ways to prevent diabetes

Understand basic pathology in simple words of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and is characterized by high blood glucose level.
Everything that we eat is converted in to simple particles after complete digestion.

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose eventually.
Protein are converted to amino acids
Fats are converted to fatty acids.
fatty acids and amino acids can also be converted into glucose when glucose supply decreases.
glucose is the main nutrient that can used
efficiently by the body for energy production in normal conditions.

Why blood glucose level rises:

Human body has an organ called pancreas. It secretes insulin.
insulin level is high when blood glucose level is high.
Blood glucose level rises after meal, so insulin level in blood is higher after meal.

In diabetic patient two things happen.
1. Insulin Production is decreased by pancreas
2. Cells of human body don't show response to insulin
To understand why blood glucose level rises in diabetes, it is necessary to know the function of insulin.


         Insulin is a hormone which regulates normal blood glucose level. It induces glucose channels, which increases the permeability of cell membrane for glucose and make it available to the cell for the process of energy production.
If the effect of insulin decreases, either due to

decrease production of insulin
decrease response by the cells to insulin (insulin resistance)

Blood level of glucose raises because glucose can't enter in to the cells, instead glucose remains in the blood, and the level of glucose in the blood rises.

What is meant by Decreased response by the cells to Insulin.

when glucose levels rises in blood, pancreas secretes insulin. This insulin induce pores formation in the cell membranes. These pores allow only glucose to pass through them. Sometimes cells don't show adequate response to insulin, It means, the membrane permeability to glucose won't increase after an increase in insulin levels as a result glucose fails to enter into the cells and its level in blood rises. The raised glucose in blood inturn, stimulates the pancreas to secrete more insulin but again the cells will not show adequate response and this vicious cycle continues, as a result of this vicious cycle, the pancreatic cells will eventually exhaust and such diabetes then may be converted into type 1 diabetes.

Type of  Diabetes.

Type I diabetes: Diabetes due to decrease in insulin secretion is called Type 1. the beta cells of pancreas don't secrete enough insulin. and blood glucose levels rises.

Type II diabetes: Diabetes due to lack of  response by the cells to insulin is called Type two. obesity is the main cause of this.

Gestational Diabetes: Pregnant women have high blood glucose levels and is called gestational diabetes. It is reversible, that is after delivery blood glucose level comes to normal.

Effects Of Diabetes on Body:

In diabetes the blood glucose level rises. and glucose can't enter into the cells and the cells will look for alternate source of energy.
The glucose is excreted in urine, So urine contains high glucose level, which can be detected in laboratory, which is a diagnostic measure.
But cells will try to survive and for this they require energy. So they will use alternate available nutrients for energy production. The alternate nutrients are fatty acids and amino acids.
The body fat storage will decrease and blood fatty acid, cholesterol and Triglyceride levels rises. and patient will lose weight as a result of increase fat and protein utilization for energy production.
Moreover increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in blood, renders the person vulnerable to diseases like
1. Hypertension.
2. Heart diseases
3. Infection (mainly subcutaneous)
4. Slow wound healing
5. poly urea ( urinary urgency / increase urine formation)
6. Renal damage (kidney problems)
7. Eye problems (vision problems)

all these effects are a result of  lack of the capacity of body to use glucose.
Blood glucose is high in diabetes which cause damage to kidney and eyes.
increased levels of fatty acids and triglycerides will cause narrowing of blood vessels which can cause heart problems, stroke and Hypertension.

Best Ways to prevent diabetes.

Maintain healthy life style.
Lose extra weight.
Take healthy diet (fruits and vegetables)
Take less sugar (it has not much effect)
Prefer fruits ( fruits have fructose which is sweeter than glucose and don't require insulin for its utilization.)
Regular exercise , jogging, swimming, walking etc.
If diabetes occur follow the advice of doctor and act accordingly and avoid sweet foods and take medicine regularly and on time. Diabetes is a manageable disease. and you can live a healthy normal life with diabetes if you follow your doctor's advice correctly.