Signs and symptoms, Causes, Types Of Goiter

Causes, Types Of Goiter

Goiter is a Thyroid Disease.

Enlargement of thyroid gland irrespective of its pathology, is called goiter. 

Thyroid gland is located in the neck, below the adam's apple (bony prominence in the neck, more porminent in males) and in front of the trachea.

Enlargement of thyroid gland causes a prominent (or slightly or non prominent)  bulge in the neck.
Goitre is a term that refers to an enlargement of the thyroid (thyromegaly) and can be associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning properly or not.
Worldwide, over 90.54% cases of goitre are caused by iodine deficiency.

Signs and symptoms

Goitre which is associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may be present with symptoms of the underlying disorder. For hyperthyroidism, the most common symptoms are weight loss despite increased appetite, and heat intolerance. However, these symptoms are often nonspecific and hard to diagnose.

Causes of Goiter.

Following conditions lead to enlargement of thyroid gland and goiter formation.

1. Physiological goiter.
Puberty onset goiter
Pregnancy related goiter.

2. Autoimmune diseases.
Grave's disease 
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

3. Thyroiditis.
Acute thyroiditis
Chronic thyroiditis ( Reidel's disease)

4.  Iodine deficiency goiter (also called endemic goiter)
5. Goiterogens (chemicals aiding goiter formation for example sulphonylureas) 

6. Multinodular goiter

7. Diffuse goiter

8. Cysts

9. Tumors
10. Sarcoidosis

11. Tuberculosis 

12. Dyshormogenesis.

Types Of Goiter.

1. Non Toxic (Simple) Goiter.
Diffuse hyperplastic goiter
Colloid goiter
Multinodular non toxic goiter
Solitary non toxic nodule

2. Toxic Goiter
Diffuse toxic goiter (Grave's disease)
Multinodular Toxic Goiter
Solitary toxic nodule.

3. Neoplastic Goiter
Enlargement of thyroid due to benign neoplasm
Enlargement of thyroid due to malignant neoplasm

4. Thyroiditis Associated Goiter.
Granulomatous Thyroiditis associated goiter
Autoimmune thyroiditis (hashimoto's thyroiditis) associated goiter
Riedel's thyroiditis associated goiter

5. Other Rare Goiters
Amyloid goiter
Acute bacterial thyroiditis associated goiter
Chronic bacterial thyroiditis associated goiter