Complications, Clinical Features Of Infective Endocarditis

Complications, Clinical Features Of Infective Endocarditis

Complications Of Infective Endocarditis.

A) Cardiac Complications.

1. Valvular Insufficiency. Valvular insufficiency results from incomplete closure of leaflets of valves.
2. Ring abscesses with possibility of perforation.
3. Suppurative pericarditis. Suppurative pericariditis is a rare life threatening disease, difficult to treat.

B) Embolic Complications.

Vegetations may break loose, and give rise to emboli in brain, spleen, kidneys, and heart itself (in left side infective endocarditis) and to lungs ( in right side infective endocarditis.)

C) Renal Complications:

   1. Embolic infarcts
   2. Focal and diffuse glomerulonephritis
   3. Multiple abscesses.

Clinical Features Of Infective Endocarditis

1. Fever:

    There is high grade fever in Acute Infective Endocarditis. Fever may be of low grade or completely absent in Sub acute Infective Endocarditis.

2. Cardiac Murmurs. 

    In a normal person a physician can auscultate two heart sounds. (called lub dub sounds) These are referred clinically as S1 and S2 respectively. Any additional sound to these two is called murmur. therefore, Murmurs can be heard while auscultating the chest of a patient with infective endocarditis.

3. Chills.

    Rigor or chills are the shaking sensations during high fever.

4. Weakness

5. Lassitude. (Fatigue)

Predisposing Factors or Risk Factors of Infective Endocarditis

1. Mitral Prolapse
2. Degenerative Calcified stenosis.
3. Prosthetic valves
4. Neutropenia
5. Immunodeficiency
6. Diabetes Mellitus
7. Intravenous drug abuse.
8. Vascular grafts.
9. Alcoholism