Clinical manifestations, Treatment for Caisson Disease(Decompression Sickness)

Clinical manifestations, Treatment for Caisson Disease (Decompression Sickness)


Caisson Disease (Decompression Sickness)


It is a disease characterized by sudden clinical manifestations that result from sudden lowering of atmospheric pressure.
Occurs In:
Deep sea and scuba divers, under water construction workers, and in individuals in unpressurized aircrafts that ascend rapidly to high altitudes.

Pathogenesis:


Deep sea divers or tunnel diggers have gases ( e.g Nitrogen, oxygen and carbondioxide) dissolved in their blood because they are at under high pressure in these sites. If they ascend too quickly to the surface the dissolved gases become undissolved and form small bubbles within circulation. Oxygen and carbondioxide dissolve again but Nitrogen don't because it is less soluble in blood. nitrogen bubbles are trapped in microvasculature and blood flow is blocked and hypoxic injury to the cells takes place.
Same sequence of events occurs when someone ascend from normal pressure to rarefied atmosphere of high altitudes as in unpressurized aircrafts.

Clinical Manifestations.


Following signs and symptoms are found in this disease.
bends: it refers to sharp pain in joints, limbs and abdomen due to formation of minute gas bubbles within skeletal muscles and supporting tissues in and around joints.
Gas emboli may induce foci of necrosis in brain and other highly vascularized organs.
Chocks: it refers to sudden respiratory distress due to edema, hamorrhage and local atelectasis or emphysema in lungs due to gas emboli.

Treatment:


First of all the patient is placed in compression chamber where barometric pressure can be raised. The rise in pressure will dissolve the nitrogen bubbles. 
then the pressure is slowly decreased over a period of time. this causes slow release of nitrogen out of the blood into the lungs from where it is expired out.