Causes Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Diseases

Causes Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Diseases

Congenital heart disease or congenital malformation of heart occur in 1 percent of live birth. It means that 1 out of every 100 live birth will have congenital heart disease.
Male babies are affected more as compared to female baby although some congenital heart diseases such as atrial septal defect (ASD) and Patent Ductus Arteriosus occur more commonly in females.

Causes of Congenital Heart Diseases:

Congenital heart diseases have following associations.

Maternal Rubella Infection:

Congenital Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Congenital Pulmonary Stenosis, Congenital Aortic Stenosis

Maternal Alcohol Abuse:

Septal Defects (Ventricular and Atrial Septal Defects)

Maternal Drug Treatment and Radiations

Genetic Defects.

Down’s Syndrome (chromosomal abnormality)

Ventricular and atrial septal defects, congenital abnormalities of heart valves.

Turner’s Syndrome (chromosomal abnormality)

Coarctation of Aorta

Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Diseases

1. Central Cyanosis:

It occurs in cyanotic congenital Heart diseases. It occurs in shunting of blood. for-example, in atrial or ventricular septal defect, blood from the right side enters the left side of the heart without passing through the lungs Which results in overall reduction in the level of oxygenation of blood.

2. Pulmonary Hypertension.

It may occur secondary to congenital septal defects.

3. Clubbing of Fingers:

Prolonged Cyanosis causes clubbing of figure. which is a feature of congenital heart disease.

4. Paradoxical embolism:

Embolus that has come from deep veins may enter the left atrium or left ventricle through atrial or ventricular septal defect. Normally deep vein thrombosis (thrombus formation in legs) causes pulmonary embolism but it may cause brain embolism when there is a defect in the heart septum. (septum is the wall which separates the right and left side of the heart).

Reduced Growth:

Congenital heard diseases cause growth retardation. Mainly due to relative ischemia and hypoxia.


Syncope is very common when an obstruction is present in ventricular outflow (aortic opening). It commonly occurs during exertion. When Peripheral vasodilatation decreases the blood flow to the brain and patient blacks out. (because, due to obstruction, heart is unable to increase cardiac output during exertion or stress).

Congenital Heart Diseases:

Congenital Cyanotic Heart Diseases:

1. Tetralogy of fallot
2. Transposition of Great Vessels
3. Tricuspid atresia
4. Truncus arteriosus
5. Eisenmenger’s syndrome

Congenital Acyanotic Heart Diseases:

Congenital Acyanotic Heart Diseases with left to right shunt:
1. Atrial septal defect
2. ventricular septal defect
3. Patent ductus arteriosus
Congenital Acyanotic heart diseases without shunt.
1. Coarctation of aorta
2. Congenital aortic stenosis
3. Pulmonary stenosis
4. Tricuspid stenosis
5. Dextrocardia
6. Ebstein’s anomaly