The causes of acute renal failure

The causes of acute renal failure


Acute renal failure is a syndrome caused by many different causes, often in emergency revival. Called acute renal failure serum creatinine glomerular filtration by 50% or 50% reduction compared with the basic values ​​(baseline). I usually put the cause of acute renal failure in three groups: renal kidney failure, kidney and after.
Read more: Evaluation of acute renal failure

Acute renal failure before renal

The causes of reduced intravascular blood volume decrease renal blood flow, such as high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of water due to all causes. Under normal physiological conditions, when the volume of traffic reduction, receptors feel pressure (baroreptors) in the carotid sinus and the heart are activated to increase activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system -aldosterone and information argininevasopressine (AVP-formerly known as antidiuretic hormone) resulting in vasoconstriction in areas not primarily to protect the main parts are the heart and brain.
When renal blood flow reduction, self-regulation mechanisms (autoregulation) of the kidney with prostaglandins and prostacyclin dilates arteries to the microspheres (afferent arterioles). Meanwhile angiotensin II with removable micro arteritis (efferent arterioles). As a result, the pressure in the glomerulus is maintained by maintaining glomerular filtration.
Mechanism to adjust the maximum effect when mean arterial blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure) at about 80 mmHg, when the blood pressure is lowered below the self-adjusting mechanism is no longer effective so reduced glomerular filtration , cause renal kidney failure.
The elderly and people with vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, sensitive to blood pressure status than ordinary people.
Some drugs interfere with the operation of the self-adjusting mechanism in glomerular circulation as prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor inhibitors increase the risk of renal failure in whom renal blood flow decreased.

Acute renal failure in kidney

- Many kidney damage in general reduced glomerular filtration. The lesions in the renal tubules, glomeruli, interstitial tissue, and blood vessels of the kidney. Renal tubular damage is usually caused by ischemia (ischemia) or toxic to the kidneys. Ischemia may be due to hemorrhage, circuit failure, septic shock. Toxic to the kidneys may be chemicals, antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, acyclovir, dye or endogenous toxins such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
If renal blood flow continued to decrease renal tubular cells will be made necrosis acute renal failure before renal functional properties become acute kidney injury body called acute tubular necrosis. Acute tubular necrosis progresses through three stages: the initial phase, the maintenance phase and the recovery phase. After the first event causing damage to the kidneys, decreased glomerular filtration in one to two weeks and then gradually recover.
Currently there is no way to make kidney faster recovery so to prevent acute tubular necrosis as intensive care, avoid toxic to kidneys
Acute glomerulonephritis usually more general expression such as fever, rash, joint pain, caused by streptococcus infection or pink erythematosus (lupus erythrematosus) or other systemic disease. Patients usually blood in the urine, in urine red head, and protein (protein).
Interstitial inflammation can also cause acute kidney failure. Acute interstitial nephritis can be caused by allergies to medications, infections, infiltrates (infiltrative diseases). Symptoms of interstitial nephritis may include fever, rash, eosinophilic cells in the blood and urine .... Vascular disease including vascular small and large blood vessels. The small blood vessels usually expressed in hemolytic anemia from IC and renal disease caused by clogged or blocked small blood vessels. Macrovascular disease usually happens in older people due to renal artery stenosis or occlusion, thrombosis due to atrial fibrillation, or acute aortic dissection (acute dissection).

Acute renal failure after kidney

- Obstruction or pinched path urine also cause acute kidney failure. The possible causes large prostate tumors, or ... Need to find cause to remove almost mechanical recovery of renal function. Ultrasound is a means of easy-to-use, non-toxic help diagnose urinary retention due to mechanical causes.