Kidney disease

Kidney disease

Kidney disease is a common illness affecting many people around the world. In the U.S., the ratio of patients with kidney failure a day increase. According to statistics, there are about 20 million people in the United States with kidney disease. In 2001, total Medicare spending for patients with kidney failure is nearly 23 billion dollars. By 2010, this figure will reach $ 28 billion. In addition to the cost in terms of economics, in patients with renal failure often suffer poor health because more susceptible to other diseases. Such as cardiovascular diseases such as cerebral stroke and myocardial infarction. So, according to the average rate, they die earlier than those who do not have kidney disease. So many organizations and American medical associations such as the National Kidney Foundation are the movement in order to track and prevent kidney failure and kidney disease through education programs.

Renal function:

To understand renal failure or kidney failure is what we need to know what the function of the kidneys is when healthy. Each of us usually have two kidneys located behind the lower back side. The two kidneys are important excretory organs in the body. Through the circulatory system, the impurities in the blood as urea kidneys filter waste from the blood into the urine and out of the body through the ureter and bladder (bladder). In addition to filtering blood, kidneys also secrete hormones (hormone) is important in bone metabolism, the production of red blood cells, and many other effects mainly to keep a regulatory environment in the body . Therefore, weak kidneys, stable environment is disturbed because the hormones are not secreted. In addition, the impurities in the stagnant blood in the body because it is not excreted. As a result the patient will have symptoms of kidney failure.

Patients with renal impairment:

There are many causes of kidney disease. But, in a general way, renal failure can be divided into two categories: acute renal failure and chronic renal failure. This distinction is entirely based on the time from the moment when a patient begins to disease at diagnosis. If this time is more than three months it is called chronic or chronic.

Acute Renal Failure:

Characteristics of acute renal failure is kidney disease developed rapidly weakening rapidly. Cause of acute renal failure is usually divided into three main categories: kidney (pre-renal), followed by kidney (post-renal), and renal (intrinsic).

The first is the cause of "kidney", meaning that the effects or factors outside the kidney but may also reduce the ability of the kidneys.

Such as when the blood supply to the kidneys is reduced in the case of heart failure due to myocardial infarction, or shocked bleeding, loss of body water, or bacteria in the blood. Patients with cirrhosis of the liver in end-stage kidney may also be weak because of the above reasons. In addition, renal artery thrombosis will also lower renal function.

Second type of acute renal failure after kidney effects, which means that the factors that affect these parts as kidney ureter and bladder (bladder). In this case, there is usually a urinary blockage for urine and waste pouring deposited in the kidneys and reduce the filtering function of the kidneys. A few examples include inflammation of the prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer.

The third type of acute renal failure are diseases originating in the kidney. This type of kidney failure can occur when the damaged kidney cells because the toxins are filtered through the kidneys, or because of the reaction caused by antibodies, or because of the inflammation of the kidney cells because of allergies medications, especially antibiotics. The chemicals that are toxic to the kidneys character including common antibiotics such as Gentamycin. A few examples of kidney damage by reactive antibodies include disease due to lupus nephritis (lupus nephritis) or inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body (vasculitis). There is also the evidence of acute nephritis may also acute renal failure.

Chronic renal failure:

When acute renal failure that lasted for more than three months without recovery, it becomes chronic (chronic). So, all the causes which induce acute renal failure mentioned above can cause chronic kidney failure. That does not mean to say the majority of cases of acute renal failure will become chronic if not treated thoroughly. In fact, only about 10-20% of cases of acute renal failure becomes chronic. The vast majority of patients with chronic renal failure without acute renal failure.

Speaking in a general way and easy to understand, chronic kidney disease can be divided into two categories. The first type of kidney failure caused by other diseases. Specific examples are diabetes and high blood pressure. Two of this disease is the cause of more than 60% of all cases of chronic renal failure. In the U.S., the main cause leading to kidney failure need dialysis due to diabetes. If the patient was suffering from diabetes or high blood pressure, absolute must try to keep the sugar level and blood pressure was normal to prevent renal failure.

The second type of chronic renal failure due to disease comes from the kidney. This type is quite complex and more rare, but can be summarized by a few examples:

IgA disease (IgA nephropathy), lupus nephritis (lupus nephritis), or inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body can begin as acute illness, long-term and become chronic.
Rare genetic diseases such as Alport syndrome (Alport's Syndrome) and polycystic kidney disease as (many kidney cysts).
Inflammation of kidney tissue (Interstitial nephritis) caused by medications such as pain relievers (such as ibuprofen).


Often the patients have no symptoms until kidney function is only about 10-15%. So, in the early stages, patients often do not know they are weak kidneys. The symptoms the patient may feel include vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, edema limbs, high blood pressure, and itching of the whole body. Some patients will have blood in the urine (blood in the urine) or proteinuria (urine protein) Urine examination. In addition, patients may also see reduced urine output and they will urinate less. There are a few symptoms that one was actually having renal failure, which is waist pain. Only two cases related to the kidneys that can hurt patients waist near the kidneys, it is a kidney infection caused by bacteria and than.Ngoai two cases, no disease has yet which makes for waist pain patients. This needs to be emphasized that for many patients, when they feel sore waist, I think I have weak kidneys, when really the only back pain only.


As mentioned above, the patient usually no symptoms of kidney failure until it was too late. So the only way to diagnose kidney disease is a blood and urine test. Since the work function of the kidney is reduced in renal failure, these impurities like urea in the blood. When testing the blood, the levels of these substances will be higher than normal. Having discovered that patients with renal failure, the doctor may give the patient an ultrasound scan of the kidneys or x-rays, depending on the cause of renal failure. Finally, doctors can "dig out" (kidney biopsy) immediate biopsy for renal cell testing almost tracing the exact cause.


Because there are many causes depletion of kidney function, so treatment must be based on the appropriate case. But in general, the patient is usually high blood pressure drugs, diuretics if edema, high-fat and fat-lowering drugs if. In addition, patients often have salt diet and diet foods that are high in phosphorus or potassium. When a patient with end-stage renal failure (kidney function 10-15%), they need dialysis (a medical term known as ED volume). There are two ways of dialysis: peritoneal dialysis (peritoneal Dialysis) and dialysis through blood (hemodialysis). For more information about dialysis, see other articles in this issue.


In summary, renal disease is a common illness that affects a large number of the world's population. Most of the patients may not have any symptoms until the kidneys are severely weak. There are many causes of acute renal failure as well as chronic. Treatment should be based on the cause of the disease. When renal function was depleted to the final stage, the patient requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.