Chronic leukemia, the bone marrow

Chronic leukemia, the bone marrow! Symptoms may include: fatigue, easy bleeding, fever, frequent infections, weight loss, loss of appetite, pain or tightness in the lower left ribs, pale skin, excessive sweating during sleep .. . do not always have obvious signs and symptoms in the early stages ...

Bone marrow Definition

Chronic leukemia bone marrow (CML) is a common type of cancer of the blood cells. The term "chronic" in chronic leukemia bone marrow indicates that this cancer tends to progress more slowly than the acute form of leukemia. The term "bone marrow" in chronic leukemia bone marrow refers to the types of cells affected by cancer.

Chronic leukemia, the bone marrow can also be called chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. Chronic leukemia, the bone marrow usually affects older adults and rarely occurs in children, although it can occur at any age.

I. Symptoms CHRONIC myelogenous leukemia

The signs and symptoms of chronic leukemia bone marrow may include:

Easy bleeding.
Frequent infections.
Weight loss.
Loss of appetite.
Pain or tightness in the lower left ribs.
Excessive sweating during sleep.
Chronic leukemia, the bone marrow does not always have obvious signs and symptoms in the early stages. Can live with chronic leukemia bone marrow for months or years without realizing it.

Because people with chronic leukemia bone marrow tend to respond better to treatment when it starts soon, see a doctor if any signs or symptoms.

II. Causes of chronic myelogenous leukemia

Chronic leukemia, the bone marrow occurs when something goes awry in the genome of the blood cells. It is not clear what originally posed this process, but the doctors have discovered how it evolved into chronic leukemia bone marrow.

First, a chromosome abnormality development

Human cells normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. The chromosomes hold DNA containing the gene controls the cell in the body. In people with chronic leukemia, bone marrow, blood cell chromosomes in exchange with each other. Part of chromosome 9 switches with a portion of chromosome 22, creating an extra chromosome.

Extra chromosome called the Philadelphia chromosome. Philadelphia chromosome is present in the blood cells of 90 percent of people with chronic leukemia, the bone marrow.

Second, the abnormal chromosome creates a new gene

Philadelphia chromosome creates a new gene. Gene from chromosome 9 associated with the gene from chromosome 22 to create a new gene called BCR-ABL. The gene BCR-ABL, including the indication of abnormal blood cells produce too much protein called tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinases promote cancer by allowing certain blood cells grow out of control.

Third, the new gene causing too much blood cells

Blood cells originate in the bone marrow, a spongy material inside bones. When normal bone marrow function, it produces immature cells (blood stem cells) in a controlled manner. These cells then grow and form blood cells circulating in the body, red cells, white cells and platelets.

In chronic leukemia, the bone marrow, this process does not work properly. The tyrosine kinase gene BCR-ABL-induced too many white blood cells. Most or all of the Philadelphia chromosome abnormalities. The white blood cells do not develop and die like normal cells. The white blood cells build huge quantities, full of healthy blood cells and bone marrow damage.


These factors increase the risk of chronic leukemia bone marrow:

Older people.
Radiation exposure, such as radiation therapy for certain types of cancer.
Family history is not a risk factor.
Chromosomal mutations leading to chronic leukemia bone marrow is not passed from parents to their children. This mutation is believed to have been, that is, it develops after birth.
III. Complications of chronic myelogenous leukemia

Chronic leukemia bone marrow (CML) can cause many complications, including:

Fatigue. If too many white blood cells, crowding out healthy red blood cells, anemia may result. Anemia can make tired. CML treatment can also reduce blood cells.

Bleeding. Blood cells called platelets help control bleeding by causing the blood to form clots. Lack of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia) can lead to bleeding and bruising easily, including frequent nosebleeds or serious, bleeding from luou teeth, or bleeding under the skin.

Pain. CML can cause pain or joint pain due to bone marrow expansion when the white blood cells produce excessive.

Splenomegaly. Some blood cells are produced more when CML is stored in the spleen. This can cause the spleen to become swollen or expanded. Rarely, the spleen becomes too large and it is in danger of being broken. Often swollen spleen takes up space in the stomach and made to feel that, even after small meals or cause pain in the left side of the body below the ribs.

Stroke. Some people with CML produce too many platelets. If not treated, this high platelet count can cause blood clots and can lead to stroke.

Infection. The white blood cells help the body fight infection. Although people with CML have too many white blood cells, these cells are often sick and can not work properly. The result is not able to fight infection as healthy cells. In addition, the treatment can cause white cells drop too low, are also prone to infection.

Mortality. If CML can not be successfully treated, and finally death.

Diagnostic Tests CHRONIC myelogenous leukemia

And test procedures used to diagnose chronic leukemia bone marrow include:

Clinical examination. Your doctor will check and check vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. Will also check the lymph nodes, spleen and stomach look unusual.

Blood tests. CBC may show abnormalities in the blood cells. Blood chemistry tests to measure body functions can also show abnormalities can help your doctor make a diagnosis.

Bone marrow examination. A bone marrow biopsy is used to collect bone marrow samples for testing in the laboratory. These tests are related to the bone marrow from the hip.

Tests to find the Philadelphia chromosome. Specialized tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, analysis of blood or bone marrow samples for the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome or gene BCR-ABL.

Stages of chronic leukemia bone marrow

The stages of chronic leukemia refers to the degree of bone marrow disease. Doctors determine the stage by measuring the proportion of infected cells with healthy cells in the blood or bone marrow. A higher rate of chronic leukemia cells means that the bone marrow is at a more advanced stage.

Stages of chronic leukemia bone marrow include:

Chronic. Chronic stage is the earliest stage and usually have the best response to treatment.

Acceleration. Acceleration phase is a transition period when the disease becomes more active.

Blastic. Blastic is a phase, positive phase which becomes serious life-threatening.

IV. TREATMENT CHRONIC myelogenous leukemia

The goal of treatment of chronic leukemia bone marrow is to eliminate red blood cells containing the gene BCR-ABL abnormality causing excess of diseased blood cells. For most people, it can not remove all of the infected cells, but treatment can help achieve a long-term remission of the disease.

Drug targets are designed to attack cancer by focusing on a specific aspect of cancer cells that allows it to grow and multiply. In chronic leukemia the bone marrow, the target of these drugs is the protein product of the gene BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. target drugs that block the action of tyrosine kinases including:

Imatinib (Gleevec).
Dasatinib (Sprycel).
Nilotinib (Tasigna).
Imatinib as initial treatment for the majority of people diagnosed with chronic leukemia, the bone marrow. If patients do not respond or become resistant to imatinib, the doctor may consider other targeted drugs or other treatments. Side effects of these drugs target include swelling or puffiness of the skin, nausea, muscle cramps, rash, fatigue, diarrhea and skin rash.

Doctors have not determined a safe spot in which people with chronic leukemia bone marrow may stop taking the drug target. For this reason, most people continue to target drugs even when blood tests showed a remission of chronic leukemia, the bone marrow.

Stem cell

Blood stem cell transplantation, also known as bone marrow transplantation, providing a unique opportunity definitive treatment for chronic leukemia, the bone marrow. However, it is usually for those who have not been helped by other treatments for blood stem cell transplants have risks and carry a high rate of serious complications.

Blood stem cell transplantation, high-dose chemotherapy is used to kill the blood cells in the bone marrow. Then blood stem cells from a donor or your own cells that had previously been collected and stored in the blood. The new cells form new, healthy blood cells to replace diseased cells.


Chemotherapy drugs are often combined with other treatments for chronic leukemia, the bone marrow. Typically, chemotherapy treatment for chronic leukemia bone marrow is said to be a pill orally. Side effects of chemotherapy drugs depend on the drugs you take.

Biological therapy

Biological therapy exploit the body's immune system to help fight cancer. The biological drug interferon is a synthetic version of an immune system cells. Interferon can help reduce the growth of leukemia cells. Interferon may be an option if other treatments do not work or if you can not use other drugs, such as during pregnancy. Side effects of interferon include fatigue, fever and weight loss.

The clinical trial

The latest clinical research trials for the treatment of diseases or new ways of using existing treatments. Enrolled in a clinical trial for chronic leukemia bone marrow may provide an opportunity to try the latest treatments, but it can not guarantee treatment. Talk to your doctor about what clinical trials are available. The same can discuss the benefits and risks of a clinical trial.

Lifestyle and remedies

For many people, chronic leukemia, the bone marrow is a chronic disease that they will live with for many years. Many people will continue treatment with imatinib indefinitely. Some days, can feel sick even when they do not look sick. And some days, the only chance of the cancer disease. Self-care measures to help adjust and cope with a chronic disease include:

Go to all medical appointments. People with chronic leukemia bone marrow often faced with medical appointments, the examination of blood and bone marrow. Appointments can bring anxiety because cancer may fear not relieved or condition has worsened. Expect some anxiety around the time of the appointment, but do not let that stop him. Plan activities to reduce stress to mind concerns. Try yoga, exercise and time with family.

Talk to your doctor about the side effects. Cancer drugs can cause strong side effects, but the side effects can usually be managed with other medications or treatments.

Not discontinue therapy alone. If the development of unpleasant side effects, such as skin rash or fatigue, not simply quit without consulting a health care professional. Similarly, do not stop taking the medication if you feel better and think that the disease can be relieved. If you stop taking the drug, the disease can quickly and unexpectedly return, even if has been relieved.

Ask for help if you have difficulty coping. The feelings of a chronic condition may feel overwhelming. Tell your doctor about feelings. May be referred to a counselor or other professional that can talk.

Alternative Medicine

No alternative has been found for the treatment of chronic leukemia bone marrow. But alternative medicine can help you cope with the stress of a chronic condition and the side effects of cancer treatment. Talk to your doctor about other options, such as:

The relaxation techniques.
Coping and support

Chronic leukemia bone marrow is usually a chronic disease and requires long-term treatment. While never be able to look like a "typical" cancer, may still have to endure the treatment and its side effects, such as nausea, cramps, and fatigue.

To help deal with the diagnosis, try:

Learn all you can about chronic leukemia bone marrow. The term "leukemia" can be confusing, because it refers to a group of cancers that affect the bone marrow and blood. Do not waste time collecting information that does not apply to the type of leukemia. Ask a health care professional for more information on specific diseases. Then narrow your search and find out the address of reliable, reputable sources.

Find a specialist. Ask your doctor about his experience in the treatment of chronic leukemia bone marrow. If doctors have little or no experience in this area, ask about having a consultation with experts. Most doctors may be willing to help arrange a consultation.

Stay connected with families to support. It can be difficult to talk about the diagnosis, and will probably get a variety of responses when sharing information. But talk about diagnosis and passing along the information about cancer can help.

Connect with other cancer survivors. Consider joining a support group, either in the community or on the Internet. A support group of people with the diagnosis can be a useful source of information, practical advice and encouragement.